What are the Different Types of Black Box Testing?

This blog defines all the major types of black box testing Methods and Techniques. It mainly has input and output of software apps.

img August 05, 2022 | img 10 | img Mobile App Development

Often when we hear the word black box we first think of the civil aviation data storage system details. In software testing, there is also Black Box Testing which simply refers to a type of software application testing and validation technique. All the testing methods or techniques therein aim at checking software for specific flaws or app inconsistencies and help validate its functional ability and quality.

This is a testing method that not only helps to define the functions of a software app by testing it without information of the internal code structure but also its implementation details and internal paths. It mainly has input and output of software apps and is based on software requirements and specifications. It is also technically referred to as Behavioral Testing.

Black Box Testing Defined and Explained in Detail

The testing involves the application of several techniques and technologies to check software from outside without scanning the app code. Additionally, it also examines apps without information of their internal design, structure, or implementation of the software development project.  There are several testing techniques that include regression, functional and mom-functional testing.

The testing is adaptable at multiple levels like unit testing, integration testing, system testing, or acceptance testing. At all the levels, it tests the input and output of apps to ensure that they function as intended under various conditions and to find and correct any errors.

Major Types of Black Box Testing Methods and Techniques

Major Types of Black Box Testing Methods and Techniques

Overall, there are several types of tests involved in this testing approach. Three of the most common types of black-box testing are functional, non-functional and regression testing. However, there are other techniques involved in black-box tests. Let us find out all below in detail.

Regression Testing

It is done after vulnerability correction, edition and system updates and regular maintenance are done. The test confirms if software changes affect current functional or non-functional aspects of the app code. In other words, it finds the effect (if at all) of new app code on pre-existing systems codes. This is essential and critical in the short and long run.

Functional Testing

It focuses on specific functions in the app. These include among others: sanity checks, integration or system testing. Its done by giving a specific input and finding out whether the output meets the softwares needs and guidelines. In short, functional testing compares inputs and outputs with the expected app results.

Non-Functional Testing

This involves several types of testing that dont examine functionality. It instead looks at other aspects and requirements, such as usability, load, performance, compatibility, stress, or scalability, etc. Non-functional testing revolves around examining how well the systems perform. The test can tell if the software is seamlessly functioning under maximum load, has multi-device compatibility and is easy to use.

Penetration Testing

The testing method primarily focuses on app security issues and concerns. App testers copy the potential actions of malicious hackers trying to attack apps from outside. Testers create potential attacks that closely look like how black hat hackers act to ensure that all attack issues are resolved or tackled. Although the testing was manually done earlier, today, there are some tech solutions that do heavy penetration lifting via process automation. This simplifies and quickens each process to a specified time.

Equivalence Class Testing

The testing is applied to reduce the number of potential test cases to an optimum level while keeping achievable test coverage.

Boundary Value Testing

It mainly and essentially focuses on the value at boundaries. It tells if some range of values are usable in the system or not. It is also quite adaptable to reduce the number of test cases. It is of great significance for the systems where inputs are within certain ranges.

Decision Table Testing

Many systems give output based on some conditions. App testers are able to find specific rules that constitute conditions, find the result of every rule, and make test cases for every rule.

State Transition Testing

In some systems, significant responses are generated when the system transitions from one state to another. When testers adopt this testing they make test cases that search the system when it transitions from one state to another. Usually, systems can lock the user account after failed login attempts and test cases can check to see what occurs at the last login attempt.

Error Guess Testing

This tests common mistakes developers make while making systems. In other words, it guesses the errors that may stay in the app. It helps to search for several faults that system techniques may not trace. It fully relies on the tester expertise and brilliance in guessing which defects may happen ahead.

Stepwise Process for Black Box Tests

(a) Study app to know requirements and specifications. The Software Requirement Specification document must be accurate.

(b) All inputs and test scenarios are evaluated. Efficient and time-saving techniques were added.

(c) Generated test cases must show the maximum input range.

(d) Generated output is compared with expected output to know the success result ratio.

(e) In case of unfinished steps, app development teams remedy all.

(f) After doing the fault fixing, tests are rerun once more for validation.

Pros and Cons of the Black Box App Testing


(a) Its one of the best options for functional testing.

(b) Test cases can be created fast

(c) Helps in easy implementation of the application.

(d) No need for expert programming skills or system implementation.

(e) Both tester and designer dont work together hence unbiased testing.

(f) Testers can implement it without technical knowledge.

(g) In case of ambiguities in the specification, the black box test helps to identify and correct them.


(a) If the number of test inputs is more, then it can be time-consuming and exhausting.

(b) Achieving no result at the end of a test is a big probability.

(c) The whole software is not tested as it can be time-consuming.

(d) It depends on specifications hence building test cases without specifications becomes very difficult.

(e) Cannot be used for complicated software.

(f) May not identify errors like missing functions, incorrect functions, data structure, behaviour, interface, performance, initialization and termination errors.

 (g) Excessive result or overestimation in the end.

(h) Possibility of redundancy if developers implement earlier.

What Do Black Box Tests Help Achieve and How?

In the end, all app tests post-development are either meant to validate or pass the software as perfectly functioning or to try and find any other hidden flaws and correct them accordingly. These tests accomplish:

(a) Additionally the tests can easily find if the software is usable and make it easy to know for its users

(b) Establishes performance under expected or peak loads

(c) Compatibility with relevant devices, screen sizes, browsers or operating systems d). Exposes common security vulnerabilities or common security threats.

White Box Testing

On the other hand, as discussed or mentioned earlier, there are always two sides or two validating approaches in software testing that help check and validate its quality and performance at all levels. White box testing goes deeper to observe the structure of the app code by testing and ensuring all components and structure work as expected. These methods include among others: loop testing, path testing,

Loop Testing

As the name suggests in software testing, the testing is carried out to clear and validate loops in the software. It is testing that tests all single, nested, independent and dependent code loops and values.

Path Testing

The testing method helps evaluate and validate all the paths through the code and establishes and defines them. This structural testing method is based on source code/algorithm as opposed to specifications and requirements.

Basis Path Testing

This is another type of structured testing or white box testing method. The testing method is done according to the control flow graph or logical path that runs test cases through the paths of a program.

Data Flow Testing

The method especially focuses on the data variables and their values adapted in the programming logic of an app. The data flow testing method achieves this by making full use of the control flow graph.

Condition Coverage Testing

The testing is unique and special in its conduct. This type of structural testing is done to ensure that both the logical and decision statements and error-free.

Differences between Black Box and White Box Testing

  1. Whereas black and white box testing are complementary as both are used to examine and evaluate apps in two very different manners or approaches.
  2. Black box method essentially looks at input and output with no absolute idea of the app's code. Additionally, it does not require app development expertise to carry out or perform this test.
  3. White box on the other hand requires or demands deep idea of the app's code. Primarily, it is done by expert app developers or testers that have sufficient domain expertise in app development.
  4. White box examines all aspects of the app that the black box method doesnt reach and tackle. These areas may include among others: the app source code, overall design and architectural configuration.
  5. In both test cases of black box and white box testing are also very different given the diverse technical knowledge required in white box testing.
  6. Primarily testing in the black box is on requirements and specifications while for white box testing it is based on app detail design.

Concluding Remarks o Black Box Testing

With increased focus on application safety and security, it is only fair to expect stricter and more robust app security testing checks. Today there are several tools that help automate but also enable test apps with exceptional precision. Black box testing is not only a vital method to do app security testing but also is the least technically challenging. The testing has a complete focus on the security side of the app looking at it from the outside than testing the app code from inside.

The prime benefits of black-box security testing are several like detecting app security vulnerability. Besides, black-box testing gives lower return figures of false positives and gives app development security teams the precise impression of app exploitability or susceptibility to malicious attacks.

Additionally, testing in this method early and often enough is necessary and helpful in the entire app development process. This is because it can adapt all the other various testing types of a black box for an unbiased and accountable view of the apps security status.  Ironically and intuitively, app developers want innovative solutions and ensure that their apps are responsive, user-friendly, and secure as well as of the highest quality. Black box testing allows checking of software to assure users of reliability and trustworthiness.


In the end, to access the best mobile app development services, quality and security checks are critical to validate app performance and safety. That is why all professional Application Management Services keep or have value-adding or impacting best app testing that vital not only ensures perfect app quality but also guarantees user privacy at all times.

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